Let's see how many different kind of protection modes Oracle offers in a Data Guard Environment.
Maximum Protection—This mode offers the highest level of data protection. Data is synchronously transmitted to the standby database from the primary database and transactions are not committed on the primary database unless the redo data is available on at least one standby database configured in this mode. If the last standby database configured in this mode becomes unavailable, processing stops on the primary database. This mode ensures no-data-loss.
Maximum Availability—This mode is similar to the maximum protection mode, including zero data loss. However, if a standby database becomes unavailable (for example, because of network connectivity problems), processing continues on the primary database. When the fault is corrected, the standby database is automatically resynchronized with the primary database.
Maximum Performance—This mode offers slightly less data protection on the primary database, but higher performance than maximum availability mode. In this mode, as the primary database processes transactions, redo data is asynchronously shipped to the standby database. The commit operation of the primary database does not wait for the standby database to acknowledge receipt of redo data before completing write operations on the primary database. If any standby destination becomes unavailable, processing continues on the primary database and there is little effect on primary database performance.
How to change from "maximum performance" to "maximum availability"? Click here for the instructions.
Data Guard Protection Mode.